🎰 The Social and Economic Impact of Native American Casinos

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Native American Casinos - The Bizarre Story of US Tribal Gaming
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), authors William Evans and Julie Topoleski summarize the history of Indian casinos over the last 20 years and examine their effect on employment, poverty.


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Tribes receive $4 of every $10 that Americans wager at casinos. reservation casino to open under a non-Indian name; however Trumps ownership ended in Supporters of Native American rights point to centuries old treaties put in place to.


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Do you need to pay taxes on your winnings? With more and more casinos appearing on Native American land, there's a casino in almost every.


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Mohegan Gaming & Entertainment, the owner of the Mohegan Sun casino, has become the first Native American tribal-owned enterprise to.


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Why do Native Americans own so many casinos? What are some aspects of Native American history that many (white) Americans fail to acknowledge?


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Why do Native Americans own so many casinos? What are some aspects of Native American history that many (white) Americans fail to acknowledge?


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Tribes receive $4 of every $10 that Americans wager at casinos. reservation casino to open under a non-Indian name; however Trumps ownership ended in Supporters of Native American rights point to centuries old treaties put in place to.


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Why do Native Americans own so many casinos? What are some aspects of Native American history that many (white) Americans fail to acknowledge?


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For landless tribes, we imputed total population and urbanicity by using the mean of each variable from the entire sample. Although there can be unintended consequences of opening a casino eg, higher crime rates 2 , several studies show that economic indicators have improved to a greater degree for tribes with gaming facilities compared with tribes who do not own gaming facilities 3,4. Copyrighted material was not used. We found that casino ownership was significantly associated with health-related community resources, particularly those related to community and physical activity—related infrastructure and social determinants of health. The social determinants subdomain included 5 resources: housing assistance, college scholarships, promoting higher education, promoting GED programs, and after school programs. On the basis of literature documenting that casinos generate revenue 2,4,26 and the option for tribes to invest that revenue into the welfare of the tribe or tribal members as one of 5 ways profits can be spent [1] , we hypothesized that owning a casino would be associated with tribes having higher levels of health-related community resources. The fact that owning additional tribal businesses was significantly associated with more community resources, even when controlling for casino ownership, suggests that additional community resources related to general infrastructure, recreational infrastructure, and social determinants of health could be a result of revenue stemming from business enterprises, regardless of whether a tribe owns a casino. Our findings provide support for the idea that owning a casino was significantly associated with tribes having additional resources related to social determinants of health eg, promoting higher education. We identified a minimally sufficient set of confounders using a directed acyclic graph. Future research should assess the extent to which community resources mediate the relationship between economic resources and health among Native Americans using causal research methods. Availability of and proximity to recreation facilities and the walkability of the community environment is significantly associated with higher levels of physical activity among adults 27 and children In turn, higher physical activity levels are significantly associated with lower obesity prevalence among adults 28 and children 10, Drawing on several bodies of literature and our findings, we speculate that casino revenue may improve the weight-related health of Native Americans through increases in community and physical activity-related infrastructure. Casino ownership was our independent variable. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between casino ownership and health-related community resources for 81 tribes in California. Schools in higher-poverty districts tend to have lower school-level expenditures 15 and fewer after-school programs Relatedly, some evidence suggests that lower-income areas have fewer early childhood education and care services 17—20 , whereas higher-income neighborhoods tend to have more enriching after school activities In our secondary models, ownership of additional tribal businesses was significantly associated with more community resources overall and the domains of community infrastructure, recreational infrastructure, and social determinants of health. Tribal business ownership was defined as a count of all business enterprises that tribes reported range, 0—4. If the respondents had the same level of seniority, then we selected the most complete response. Among Native American adults, living in a community with a casino has been associated with greater decreases in mortality, obesity, diabetes, smoking, and binge drinking, compared with living in a community without a casino 2,5. In secondary analyses we wanted to estimate the association between additional business enterprise ownership and community resources to ensure that the association was not being driven by casinos, since other businesses could be directly related to the casino or be a proxy for a large casino. The community infrastructure subdomain included 5 resources: presence of sidewalks, parks, playgrounds, community gardens, and community centers. Residual-versus-fitted plots were visually inspected for the final models. Findings suggest that Native American tribes are successfully investing casino revenue into community resources, which could have implications for improving tribal public health. Our findings also suggested that tribal ownership of additional business enterprises is significantly associated with having more health-related community-level resources. A copyrighted survey instrument was not used. Additionally, casinos have been significantly associated with improved health outcomes among Native Americans. For example, each resource in the social determinants subdomain was worth 2 points, because the social determinants subdomain comprised 5 resources; whereas each resource within the health domain was worth 1. Fourth, this survey was not validated, and the results may be specific to the use of this particular scale. In California, there were federally recognized tribes as of 25 , and data indicate that 72 tribes now own a casino also referred to as gaming tribes In California, a Revenue Sharing Trust Fund RSTF was established to redistribute revenues from larger gaming operations to smaller gaming operations and nongaming tribes. If neither seniority nor completeness were discriminatory, we then selected a response at random. One tribal survey was excluded from the analyses because the tribe name was not provided. In these cross-sectional data, community-level economic development was hypothesized to be a mediator of the casino—community resources association and therefore was not controlled for in these analyses. Tribal businesses queried included gas stations, hotels, tourist attractions, convenience stores, and others. Therefore, each subdomain had a maximum of 10 points range, 0—10 , regardless of the number of resources in each subdomain so that, in the total score, each subdomain had equal weight. We found no indication of problems with functional form; however, in some models, errors looked slightly heteroscedastic. In our primary analyses, we used adjusted multivariable linear regression models to test the association between casino ownership and total health-related community resources. This finding is consistent with a related qualitative study, which found that tribal members perceived that per-capita payments and improved cash flow, stemming from casino profits, contributed to improved community and physical activity-related infrastructure Participants highlighted the construction of new sports facilities after casinos were built in their communities Our findings are also consistent with the broader literature indicating that lower-income communities tend to have limited access to trails, parks, and recreational facilities 9,10,12— Estabrooks and colleagues found that parks, sports facilities, gyms, community centers, and trails were less prevalent in lower-income versus higher-income communities 9. Finally, the recreation program subdomain included 4 resources: fitness classes, school-based sports leagues, community-based sports leagues, and sports tournaments. We created a total health-related community resources score maximum of 50 points by grouping resources into 5 subdomains community infrastructure, health care and education, social determinants, recreational infrastructure, and recreation programs , which we scored for a maximum of 10 points each and then summed. Among Native Americans in California, time-series data suggest that living in a community with a Native American—owned casino was significantly associated with decreased childhood obesity 4 and newborn large-for-gestational age 6. In other words, additional community resources could stem from casino revenue, tribal business revenue, or both. First, we contacted tribal leaders and provided them with the option to complete the survey on paper and return by mail or complete it online. This Act stipulates that profits from Native American—owned casinos are required to be spent on tribal governance — providing for the welfare of the tribe and tribal members, promoting tribal economic development, and funding of local government agencies — or donated to charitable organizations 1. We developed the survey questions on the basis of qualitative interviews with tribes in California 23 and a review of the literature. We hypothesized that owning a casino would be associated with having more health-related community resources, such as physical activity—related infrastructure, health clinics, and resources related to social determinants of health. We also tested to see if casino ownership was significantly associated with each of the 5 subdomains by using separate adjusted multivariable linear regression models. We found that tribes who own casinos tended to have more health-related resources overall compared with tribes who do not own casinos, and they had more resources related to community infrastructure, recreational infrastructure, and social determinants of health. Data on the total population living on tribal lands was obtained from the Census. California has the largest Native American population in the United States, as reported by the Census. Longitudinal findings in North Carolina indicate that the opening of a casino in the community and subsequent improvements in individual income among Native American families was significantly associated with decreased risk of some behavioral issues in childhood 7 and of substance abuse in young adulthood 8. A key goal of Native American gaming is to promote economic development among Native American tribes. We created a score to capture the number of health-related community resources by first grouping resources into 5 subdomains: 1 community infrastructure, 2 health care and education, 3 social determinants, 4 recreational infrastructure, and 5 recreation programs. Casino ownership is significantly associated with health-related community resources. We contacted tribal leaders with survey reminders 2. Literature has documented that casinos have increased economic resources among some Native Americans living on tribal lands and that casinos are significantly associated with improved health. The health care and education subdomain included 8 resources: tribal health clinics, health insurance, chronic disease prevention programs, healthy living campaigns, wellness programs, nutrition courses and resources, weight loss programs, and health fairs. Additionally, 20 surveys were collected in person among participants. Institutional review board review determined that this was not human subjects research. We decided that we had no reason to weight any of these subdomains more heavily than the others. However, we controlled for community-level urbanicity and tribe size, both of which could influence casino ownership and community resources. Therefore, business enterprise ownership was also hypothesized to be a mediator of the casino—community resources association and was not included as a confounder. Therefore, we used robust standard errors, which relax the assumption of homoscedastic error terms. Our confounders included total population living on tribal land and the urbanicity of the tribal land; we controlled for these characteristics in all models. Our primary outcome was the total number of health-related community resources available within each tribe.

Prev Chronic Dis ; Casinos have increased economic resources among some Native Americans living on tribal lands, and casinos are associated with improved health. Kodish et al similarly found that tribal members in California perceived that casino revenue was used to create college scholarship funds for tribal members Paired with previous findings that indicate that casinos have improved income levels for Native Accept.

casino cancun ubicacion remarkable communities 2,4,22our findings are also consistent with literature suggesting that higher-income communities tend to offer more education-related resources. We obtained casino ownership native american surveys from 94 individuals and 81 unique tribes in California.

We used adjusted linear regression models to test the association between casino ownership and health-related community resources. Similarly, unmeasured confounders could have influenced both the development of a casino and the development of health-related community resources.

In addition to casinos, other common tribally owned businesses include hotels, gas stations, convenience stores, tourist attractions, and smoke shops. An increase in casino ownership native american community resources related to tribal ownership of casinos may be one mechanism through which the health of Native Americans is improved.

Casinos are significantly associated with improved health among some Native Americans living on tribal lands.

However, no studies have quantitatively assessed whether casinos are associated with having more community resources.

Corresponding Author: Vanessa M.

Our study had limitations. First, the data were cross-sectional, so we do not know whether casino ownership preceded community health-related resources, and we cannot infer that any associations are causal. Many studies indicate that populations with higher incomes and levels of community resources have better health outcomes compared with populations with lower incomes and community resources 9— Prior reports and case studies have suggested that tribes often distribute a portion of the profits to tribal members called per capita payments and invest profits in community resources that may affect health 22— Casinos have been significantly associated with improved per capita income, percentage of the population working but still poor, and the percentage of the population in poverty 2,4, However, to our knowledge, no studies have quantitatively assessed whether casinos are associated with having more community resources. Several studies with quasi-experimental designs confirm that casinos are significantly associated with improved economic resources. We found that casino ownership was associated with having more health-related community resources, particularly those related to community and physical activity—related infrastructure and social determinants of health. Tribes then decide how to invest the profits generated from either their casino or the RSTF. However, because we think owning other businesses can also result in increased health-related community resources, in secondary analyses, we explored whether tribal ownership of other business enterprises was associated with higher levels of health-related community resources, when controlling for casino ownership. To do so, we tested whether other tribally owned businesses were also significantly associated with community resources, when controlling for casino ownership status. To create the total resource score, we summed each of the subdomain scores, for a maximum score of 50 range, 0— Casino ownership, a binary self-reported variable, was the primary independent variable. The gray literature has documented that operating a casino is significantly associated with having other tribal business enterprises Tribal ownership of other business enterprises may be a proxy for larger, more profitable casinos, or a downstream effect of casino revenue. RUCCs range from 1 metro areas to 9 completely rural areas. Future research should assess whether community resources mediate the relationship between economic resources and health among Native Americans.